Weimar and Nazi Germany
The Weimar Constitution
The impact of the Treaty of Versailles
1919 -1923: years of crisis?
The Munich Putsch
The Origins of the Nazi Party
1924 - 1929: A Golden era?
German Foreign Policy 1919 to 1933
Germany in the Depression
The Rise of the Nazi party
- Why did people vote for Hitler?
From Chancellor to Fuhrer
The failures of Weimar
Creating a totalitarian state
Nazi methods of control
- Organisation of the Nazi Party
- Obedience to the Fuhrer
Opposition to the Nazi's
- Nazi Ideology
The Economy under the Nazi's
- The 2nd 4 Year Plan
- Evaluation of the 4 Year Plan
- How successful was the policy of Autarky?
- German Labour Front
- Dr Robert Ley
Nazi Foreign Policy
- Did Hitler plan to have a Second
Education in Nazi Germany
Women in Nazi Germany
- The Jewish Problem in 1933
- Anti-Jewish Legislation
- Policy 1933 - 1937
- Origins of Anti-Semitism
were so many attracted to Hitler's politics?
It must not be forgotten that there was already a long history of Anti-Semitism
in Germany. It was not created by the Nazis. Yet, the 2000 year old roots
of Anti-Semitism found a variant strain in Germany that was based on racial
as well as social resentment. By 1900 there were many specifically anti-Jewish
political parties with seats in the Reichstag. They were not large in
number but their ideas were almost always heard.
It is no co-incidence that the rise in German antipathy and aversion
to the Jews occurred at a time of great national reconstruction and emergence
after unification. In reality, we should not be surprised at all. The
end of the war, 1918, saw the Jew become an easy target for the radical-right
seeking an explanation of how Germany had lost the war. The Jewish community
was identifiable because of its different traditions and became the target
of envy for it was seen as privileged.
In 1933, the Jews comprised of less than 1% of the national population.
But they composed of 16%+ of all lawyers, 10% of doctors and 5% of writers
and editors. It was not unusual for the Jew to attract such disproportionate
notice in Germany - even so, these figures are unusually high.
Eugenics and Biology
The late 19th Century saw an intellectual shift and attraction towards
eugenics and biological classification of race. This debate was already
100 years old when Hitler adapted it into Mein Kampf.
Essentially it centred upon the theory that nations were like animals
and only through struggle and fighting could they hope to survive. This
'Survival of the Fittest' had been expanded upon by the philosopher Fredrich
Nizeche. He called it, 'The Theory of the Superman'. In this way, Nazism
and Nazi theory was being delivered in an intellectual manner. It was
seen as acceptable and respectable. As such, Nazi ideology and theory
was able to permeate into the larger and broader sections of respectable
German society that would have ordinarily have occurred. "....Ominously,
it was particularly strongly entrenched within the academic community,
thereby influencing the next generation...." (Noakes, 1983)
Anti-Semitism: Natural or Created?
In such an environment it was natural that anti-Semitism would germinate
(and even take root). It was all the more effective due to the size of
Hitler's personal hatred and contempt for the Jews. Without his own personal
involvement, charismatic commitment and oratory skill it is questionable
whether anti-Semitism would have been so central and the results would
have been so dynamic and shocking as they were in 1945. That he was able
to create the monster that was the Nazi state must be bound upon in the
unique circumstances of 1930s Germany:
* Stab in the back
* Loss of the War
* Humiliation at Versailles
* Political Weakness of Weimar
* Social and economic crisis and extremism: 1919-23 and 1929-33
* Massive unemployment: 1929-33
In this atmosphere it is not unexpected to find a public lurch towards
the radical answers of the right and the answers that Hitler will have
had. All the more, Hitler was able to exploit latent hostility towards
the Jews and turn it into a radical doctrine (set of guidelines) of hatred.
Hitler - His Appointment
The appointment of Hitler as chancellor -an open anti-Semite, rabble-rouser
and vigilante (Munich Putsch, 1923) - is problematic. He gained 37% of
the vote in 1933. Even more, a survey of complaints about the new regime
in 193 found that over 60% did not mention anti-Semitism.
So, how did Hitler's policy develop from a simple rabble-rousing, angry
message into the doctrine of a nation and an image of a people?
- How far did Germany recover under Stresemann?
- How did the Nazi party develop, upto 1929?
- How did Hitler become Chancellor?
- Howdid Hitler create a dictatorship?
- What were the main features of Totalitarian
- What were the benefits of Nazi rule?
Full Germany revision