Weimar and Nazi Germany
The Weimar Constitution
The impact of the Treaty of Versailles
1919 -1923: years of crisis?
The Munich Putsch
The Origins of the Nazi Party
1924 - 1929: A Golden era?
German Foreign Policy 1919 to 1933
Germany in the Depression
The Rise of the Nazi party
- Why did people vote for Hitler?
From Chancellor to Fuhrer
The failures of Weimar
Creating a totalitarian state
Nazi methods of control
- Organisation of the Nazi Party
- Obedience to the Fuhrer
Opposition to the Nazi's
- Nazi Ideology
The Economy under the Nazi's
- The 2nd 4 Year Plan
- Evaluation of the 4 Year Plan
- How successful was the policy of Autarky?
- German Labour Front
- Dr Robert Ley
Nazi Foreign Policy
- Did Hitler plan to have a Second
Education in Nazi Germany
Women in Nazi Germany
- The Jewish Problem in 1933
- Anti-Jewish Legislation
- Policy 1933 - 1937
- Origins of Anti-Semitism
"The Night of Broken Glass" (9-10 November 1938)
On November 9, 1938, the Nazis unleashed a wave of pogroms against Germany's
Jews. In the space of a few hours, thousands of synagogues and Jewish
businesses and homes were damaged or destroyed. This event came to be
called Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") for the shattered
store windowpanes that carpeted German streets.
The excuse for this violence was the assassination of a German diplomat
in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, on the 7th of November 1938, by Herschel Grynszpan,
a Jewish teenager whose parents, along with 17,000 other Polish Jews,
had been recently expelled from the Reich. Though portrayed as spontaneous
outbursts of popular outrage, these pogroms were calculated acts of retaliation
carried out by the SA, SS, and local Nazi party organizations.
Stormtroopers killed at least 91 Jews and injured many others. For the
first time, Jews were arrested on a massive scale and transported to Nazi
concentration camps. About 30,000 Jews were sent to Buchenwald, Dachau,
and Sachsenhausen, where hundreds died within weeks of arrival. Release
came only after the prisoners arranged to emigrate and agreed to transfer
their property to "Aryans."
Kristallnacht culminated the escalating violence against Jews that began
during the incorporation of Austria into the Reich in March 1938. It also
signalled the fateful transfer of responsibility for "solving"
the "Jewish Question" to the SS.
There are important lessons to be drawn from Kristallnacht, for it served
as a bridge experience for both Jews and Nazis. For the Jews, there was
the terrifying realization that political anti-Semitism can lead to violence,
even in Western countries. It also demonstrated that apathy can still
pervade the world when the lives of Jews or other minorities are threatened.
For the Nazis, Kristallnacht taught that while the world might condemn
their pogroms, it would not actively oppose them. World opinion, however,
taught the Nazis the value of secrecy in the perpetration of future actions
against Jews. Added to the complaints of Germans offended by the random
violence of Kristallnacht, the stage was set for the "Final Solution"--the
organized, bureaucratically efficient genocide of 6,000,000 men, women,
and children. In retrospect, Kristallnacht was more than the shattering
of windows and illusions. It portended the physical destruction of European
Jewry. As such, we must remember and commemorate Kristallnacht as a memorial
and as a warning.
- How far did Germany recover under Stresemann?
- How did the Nazi party develop, upto 1929?
- How did Hitler become Chancellor?
- Howdid Hitler create a dictatorship?
- What were the main features of Totalitarian
- What were the benefits of Nazi rule?
Full Germany revision