Weimar and Nazi Germany
The Weimar Constitution
The impact of the Treaty of Versailles
1919 -1923: years of crisis?
The Munich Putsch
The Origins of the Nazi Party
1924 - 1929: A Golden era?
German Foreign Policy 1919 to 1933
Germany in the Depression
The Rise of the Nazi party
- Why did people vote for Hitler?
From Chancellor to Fuhrer
The failures of Weimar
Creating a totalitarian state
Nazi methods of control
- Organisation of the Nazi Party
- Obedience to the Fuhrer
Opposition to the Nazi's
- Nazi Ideology
The Economy under the Nazi's
- The 2nd 4 Year Plan
- Evaluation of the 4 Year Plan
- How successful was the policy of Autarky?
- German Labour Front
- Dr Robert Ley
Nazi Foreign Policy
- Did Hitler plan to have a Second
Education in Nazi Germany
Women in Nazi Germany
- The Jewish Problem in 1933
- Anti-Jewish Legislation
- Policy 1933 - 1937
- Origins of Anti-Semitism
(German Labour Front)
Between 1933 and 1939, the people of Germany gained through available
employment. The regime was able to provide work (and some sense of stability)
where the Weimar Republic had been precariously lacking. By 1939, only
35,000 of the 25m German workers were officially unemployed. A miracle
The DAF, the German Labour Front, was the amalgamation of all German
unions into one Reich union. This was formed after all independent German
labour unions were made illegal in May 1933. Assets were handed over and
membership rose form 5m (1933) to 22m (1939). There was no wage bargaining,
no industrial action or strikes and certainly no protests. This union
was established "....for the good of the fatherland...." Headed
by Dr.Robert Ley, DAF provided a range of facilities and support networks
to motivate the workforce to produce more and provide leisure opportunities
for the average German worker.
Strength Through Joy (KDF)
* Provided workers with subsidised holidays, hikes, sports, theatre
* In 1938 over 10m took KDF holidays within Germany
Beauty of Work
* Subdivision of KDF to improve work facilities.
* Sought to provide healthy working conditions for workers in factories,
mines, chemical workers, iron ore sites, etc.
* Ley saw this as a method of breaking down the class system. Workers
could be integrated into the new works system without fear or intimidation
from other classes.
* Included the 'Volkswagen' scheme - workers saved money with a scheme
to receive a car. Very few ever did.
* Provided works training schemes and vocational training courses - 2.5m
Trustees of Labour
* 12 trustees looked after an area to fix wages, arrange and grant holiday
* They were supervised by the Council of Trust
Councils of Trust
* Group who discussed group and worker safety at work and welfare.
* They were mandated to strengthen ties between workers.
Labour Service (RAD)
* Voluntary labour scheme under the Weimar Republic.
* After 1935 this group made six months labour service compulsory to all
between the ages of 19 and 25.
* Majority of workers were working class.
* Intended to educate the German youth in the spirit of National Socialism
through work-pride and employment.
* Most workers found themselves in agriculture or public works programmes.
Conditions and Results
* Wages were frozen at 1933 levels.
* In order to maintain order, many employers gave holiday and X-mas bonuses
and paid for worker insurance schemes.
* Demand for skilled workers was high and so there was still 435,000 foreign
workers in Germany in 1939.
* Some employers gave workers free travel, cars and motorbikes.
* Hard to assess and generalise.
* Those in armaments industries and businesses showered with patronage
by the state did better than they had done before.
* Take-home pay may have risen for some workers, but mostly because of
* Even so, the rapid improvement of workers and the availability of work
for all would have given the impression of greater prosperity and stability
that there might actually have been.
* Thus, people felt better under the Nazis rather than actually knowing
they were better off.
* By 1936, average wages were 35marks per week - 10 times the dole money
that 6 million had received in 1933.
* Average holidays increased from 3 days per year (1933) to 12 day per
* Generally, workers lost their freedom but gained some improved facilities
* They lost political power through the banishment of their unions and
lost the ability to pay-bargain.
* After 1935, every worker was issued with a work-booklet that they had
to carry at all times. It was effectively their work's passport.
* Workers were more occupied and had access to more leisure time than
they had previously enjoyed pre-1933.
* Compensation, insurance and health care were options that all workers
* Workers did have a method of complaint and appeal through their Councils
of Trust but this was very rare. With only one body of appeal, and that
also being Nazi-led, there were very few disputes or complaints.
* The regime tried to build the community spirit in the work place - most
would have enjoyed the spa's and water retreats but for 90% they would
only have ever seen it in pictures.
- How far did Germany recover under Stresemann?
- How did the Nazi party develop, upto 1929?
- How did Hitler become Chancellor?
- Howdid Hitler create a dictatorship?
- What were the main features of Totalitarian
- What were the benefits of Nazi rule?
Full Germany revision