Weimar and Nazi Germany
* Deprive Jews of their livelihood, property, citizenship and dignity
As we have suggested already, Hitler was not the inventor or conceiver
of Anti-Semitism or Anti-Jewish behaviour. It was centuries old and had
become quite sophisticated in the new modern democracies and conservative
countries of Central and Western Europe. Additionally, Hitler's concern
for the rebuilding of the economy and rearmament was not pursued in isolation
of other aims and policies. Hitler still introduced some discriminatory
measures and legislation. These became known as the 'April Laws' 1933.
* Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service
These laws were designed to make exclusive the profession law and civil service only open to Aryans and Germans. Hitler had to exempt Jews who had served for the Fatherland in WW1 for he was not yet ready to stand up to Hindenburg.
* Decree Regarding Physicians' Services
Designed to prohibit Jewish doctors from working in the state health sector although once again this clause was boycotted by Hindenburg.
* Law Against the Overcrowding of German Schools
Designed to restrict the number of Jewish students in any one school
or university to 5% of the total.
Although the April Laws created the platform for the more disturbing and evil marginalisation, separation and division of Jews from Germany society, they did not have the total effect that the Nazi party had wished for. The Hindenburg clauses meant that 70-75% of doctors, lawyers and commercial men remained in their jobs. Within a week the government had to announce that the law only applied to those in upper levels of the civil service as few replacements could be found.
The party activists (especially the SA) were not happy with the laws. They felt let down by Hitler who had promised the entire removal of the Jews from Germany society and business life.
It would take a number of other measures and more legislation to quell the revolutionary zeal in the SA and other radical elements in the party.
* Public book burning ceremonies (May 1933). This was an attack co-ordinated
by Goebbels (Minister for Propaganda) that was inspired to whip up anti-Semitism
and anti-Jewish intellectualism.
The situation of the Jews into 1934 was still vague but had stabilised a little. Only 23,000 decided it was time to leave Germany altogether. Some 10,000 even returned in early 1935. Arbitrary terror and discrimination were continuous but the regime, though, still seemed tame and fairly mild.
What was most puzzling for German Jews was the obsessive propaganda and notices across Germany that ridiculed the Jew and mocked their citizenship. It was citizenship that was next under threat.