Weimar and Nazi Germany
The Weimar Constitution
The impact of the Treaty of Versailles
1919 -1923: years of crisis?
The Munich Putsch
The Origins of the Nazi Party
1924 - 1929: A Golden era?
German Foreign Policy 1919 to 1933
Germany in the Depression
The Rise of the Nazi party
- Why did people vote for Hitler?
From Chancellor to Fuhrer
The failures of Weimar
Creating a totalitarian state
Nazi methods of control
- Organisation of the Nazi Party
- Obedience to the Fuhrer
Opposition to the Nazi's
- Nazi Ideology
The Economy under the Nazi's
- The 2nd 4 Year Plan
- Evaluation of the 4 Year Plan
- How successful was the policy of Autarky?
- German Labour Front
- Dr Robert Ley
Nazi Foreign Policy
- Did Hitler plan to have a Second
Education in Nazi Germany
Women in Nazi Germany
- The Jewish Problem in 1933
- Anti-Jewish Legislation
- Policy 1933 - 1937
- Origins of Anti-Semitism
Goering and the 4 Year Plan: 1936-40
Schacht failed to convince Hitler of the necessity for scaling down rearmament
and found that his responsibility for the economy reduced, in 1936, in
favour of Herman Goering. The promotion of Goering over the experienced
and responsible Schacht would obviously undermine
Schacht. He resigned his posts in 1937 and replaced by the more subservient
Walter Funk. Hitler had used Schacht for his ability to rehabilitate the
economy and German financing, now he had no use for someone with ideas.
Goering introduced the second plan for German economic recovery. It became
known as the four year plan. This plan is key to our understanding of
how far Hitler was creating a war economy in peacetime or actually creating
the conditions necessary for war in the future.
Goering was the effective economic overlord of Germany and his main tasks
2. Works Programs (keep unemployment low)
His powers included:
1. The ability to acquire property and businesses for his programmes.
2. Direct industry
3. Re-channel financing
4. Direct policy
From 1937 onwards he amassed a vast fortune through his state-owned mining
and industrial enterprise company. It became the largest industrial enterprise
system in Europe. He controlled the production of:
1. Iron Ore
2. Coal mining
4. Oil refineries
5. Steel works
6. Armament manufacturing factories - especially heavy machinery plants
One of Goering's key aims within autarky was to replace products that
Germany was not producing enough of or at all by synthetic methods. For
example, rubber, oil and petrol were produced in large quantities and
stock-piled for future need. Iron ore was concentrated at Salzgitter in
Hanover and Fanconia (south) order to reduce reliance upon Swedish imports.
He established companies in the Ruhr to supply German industry with coke
and coal rather than importing from Italy and France.
Such schemes were not always built upon economic sense and also did not
always meet with success. Production in Salzgitter fell below target levels
while in Franconia steel and iron works were not completed before the
war started. Completing them during war was not of immediate concern.
Additionally, Hitler's foreign policy (1936-38/9) brought Germany territories
that were richer in raw materials and minerals. Even so, by the mid-1930s
Germany was second only to the USA in iron and steel production.
Goering was also keen to establish links with big business, especially
with those who would be useful to the Nazi regime later. He forged a strong
relationship between the Nazi party and the chemical giant IG Farben.
The company supported the party financially and committed itself to produce
synthetic substitutes for rubber, petrol, petrol, oil and textiles. Likewise,
the company persuaded the Nazi party to increase its investment on the
promise that it could help Germany achieve self-sufficiency.
The IG Farben factory close to Auschwitz
Goering, though, was more than a war developer. He was a vicious administrator,
who would make continued demands of his staff and would sack civil servants
at will. He set up a General Council that was directly answerable to him.
He made all the decisions on foreign exchange and raw materials, as well
as taking responsibility for the allocation of labour, agriculture, price
control, industrial investment and foreign trade.
- How far did Germany recover under Stresemann?
- How did the Nazi party develop, upto 1929?
- How did Hitler become Chancellor?
- Howdid Hitler create a dictatorship?
- What were the main features of Totalitarian
- What were the benefits of Nazi rule?
Full Germany revision