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Why were there two armed camps in Europe in 1914?

Why did war break out in 1914?

How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?

Why did the League of Nations fail in its aim to keep peace?

How did Hitler challenge and exploit the Treaty of Versailles?

Why did Chamberlain's policy of Appeasement fail to prevent war from breaking out?

Why did the USA and USSR become rivals between 1945 and 1949?

How did the Cold War develop between 1949 and 1955?

How peaceful was Peaceful Co-existence?

How close to war was the world in the 1960's?

Why did Detente collapse in the 1970's and 1980's?

Why did Communism collapse in Central and Eastern Europe?

THE END OF DÉTENTE 1978 – 1985

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979

In 1978 the government of Afghanistan was overthrown by the communist-style People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan. It did not have the full support of the Afghani people and Afghan Muslims in particular were very unhappy. Thousands of them joined the mujahideen which was a guerrilla movement, claiming to be on a holy mission for Allah. Unrest and chaos grew in Afghanistan. Brezhnev was worried that the Islamic fundamentalism that was developing in Afghanistan would spread into the nearest Soviet states. [there were 30 million Muslims in the USSR] In December 1979 he sent Soviet troops to Afghanistan to help restore order and to support the communist government there. He claimed that the Treaty of Friendship agreed with one of the leaders in 1978 meant he was not ‘invading’ but was ‘invited’.

U.S. Reaction to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan – President Carter

How did President Reagan change US Foreign Policy?
The End of Détente?

The USSR put SS20 missiles in the western Soviet Union and the USA retaliated by putting intermediate range Cruise missiles, which could not be detected by radar, into western Europe. Tension continued to rise, though Reagan was prepared to discuss arms limitation because he knew he was in a position of strength, largely because the Soviet Union had serious economic problems.
In November 1981, he offered to cancel the deployment of the intermediate range missiles in Europe if the Soviet Union dismantled 600 of its SS20s. This was called the ‘zero option’ but Brezhnev rejected the suggestion. Some people believe Reagan knew Brezhnev would not agree. In 1982, Reagan made a speech calling the Soviet Union and ‘Evil Empire’ and later that year the new Soviet President, Andropov called Reagan ‘insane’ and a ‘liar’.






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