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How did the Cold War develop? 1943–56

The Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

The attitudes of Stalin and Truman and the ideological differences between the superpowers.

The establishment and control of the Soviet satellite states

Cominform and Comecon.

The growing involvement of the USA in Europe

The Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan


The Berlin Blockade/Airlift

The formation of NATO.

Military developments and the beginnings of the arms race.

The impact of Soviet rule on Hungary


De-Stalinisation and optimism

The Hungarian Revolution: Nagy and his demands, Soviet reaction and uprising, the death of Nagy, the re-establishment of Soviet control and international

The Cold War, 1956 - 1969.

The Berlin Crisis

The refugee problem
Khrushchev's challenge to the USA
Summit Conference and Eisenhower
Challenge to Kennedy
Construction of the Berlin Wall and its impact
Kennedy's visit to Berlin, 1963.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

How did the USA react to the Cuban Revolution?
Why did Khrushchev put missiles into Cuba?
Why did Kennedy react as he did?
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

How did the Cold War develop? 1943–56

The impact of Soviet rule on Hungary

In December 1944 a Provisional Government was formed in Hungary. It was dominated by the Hungarian Communist party, though had members of other 'anti-fascist' parties in the Cabinet. This government quickly agreed an armistice with the Soviet Union and paved the way for the creation of a permanent government structure in Hungary.

In April, 1945, the government was expanded and the Hungarian Communist Party won an overall majority in the elections that had been held. A second election in November, 1945, saw the HCP lose their overall majority but they formed a coalition and retained key government posts including oversight of security. Using this role the HCP managed to discredit many of their political opponents and had leaders of some parties arrested.

In the winter of 1948 Hungary was declared a Socialist Workers Republic. Military aid and training was now provided by the Soviet Union and the government took on a system much akin to that employed in the Soviet Union. Agriculture began to be collectivised, industry nationalised and Hungary joined, in January 1949, The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance which tied them economically to the Soviet Union and Soviet Satellite States. Along Soviet Lines the church was targetted through land reform and the secularisation of church schools. Unions were replaced with state controlled organisations.

This process of 'Sovietisation' continued under the leadership of Rakosi until 1953.





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