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How did the Cold War develop? 1943–56

The Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

The attitudes of Stalin and Truman and the ideological differences between the superpowers.

The establishment and control of the Soviet satellite states

Cominform and Comecon.

The growing involvement of the USA in Europe

The Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan


The Berlin Blockade/Airlift

The formation of NATO.

Military developments and the beginnings of the arms race.

The impact of Soviet rule on Hungary


De-Stalinisation and optimism

The Hungarian Revolution: Nagy and his demands, Soviet reaction and uprising, the death of Nagy, the re-establishment of Soviet control and international

The Cold War, 1956 - 1969.

The Berlin Crisis

The refugee problem
Khrushchev's challenge to the USA
Summit Conference and Eisenhower
Challenge to Kennedy
Construction of the Berlin Wall and its impact
Kennedy's visit to Berlin, 1963.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

How did the USA react to the Cuban Revolution?
Why did Khrushchev put missiles into Cuba?
Why did Kennedy react as he did?
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

How did the Cold War develop? 1943–56

The formation of NATO.

The Western Alies were very wary of the Soviet Union and feared that there may be attempts to impose Communism in nations that did not want it. The way in which the USSR blockaded West Berlin and denied Eastern Europeans the promised democratic governments made the threat appear real. Further evidence that the USSR was attempting to expand came when the Soviets supported an attempted communist uprising in Greece and later in Czechoslavakia. If the Soviets were willing to assist revolutionaries in these countries, there was no reason why they wouldn't do so elsewhere, or use force to impose their will on other nations.

As a response to the increased threat of Soviet agression the Western European nations (Britain, France and the Benelux nations) signed the Brussels Treaty in 1948. This promised mutual assistance in the event of any of these countries being attacked.

The Soviet Blockade of West Berlin convinced the American government that the Soviet threat was real, and serious. They decided that the Western Alies needed to have a united approach to the Soviet threat. In April 1949 12 Western nations formed NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation). They agreed to consider an attack on one member of the organisation as being an attack upon all of these nations. They included Allied servicement in occupied Europe and Western colonies in Africa.






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