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How did the Cold War develop? 1943–56

The Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

The attitudes of Stalin and Truman and the ideological differences between the superpowers.

The establishment and control of the Soviet satellite states

Cominform and Comecon.

The growing involvement of the USA in Europe

The Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan


The Berlin Blockade/Airlift

The formation of NATO.

Military developments and the beginnings of the arms race.

The impact of Soviet rule on Hungary


De-Stalinisation and optimism

The Hungarian Revolution: Nagy and his demands, Soviet reaction and uprising, the death of Nagy, the re-establishment of Soviet control and international

The Cold War, 1956 - 1969.

The Berlin Crisis

The refugee problem
Khrushchev's challenge to the USA
Summit Conference and Eisenhower
Challenge to Kennedy
Construction of the Berlin Wall and its impact
Kennedy's visit to Berlin, 1963.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

How did the USA react to the Cuban Revolution?
Why did Khrushchev put missiles into Cuba?
Why did Kennedy react as he did?
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Construction of the Berlin Wall and its impact

On the night of August 13th, 1961, the East German authorities deployed workers and soldiers to cut off West berlin. They placed posts on roads, barbed wire and armed guards. Telephone lines were cut to the West. In the morning, it was virtually impossible to pass from East Berlin to the West. In the coming days these intitial blockades were developed into fences topped with barbed wire: this structure being replaced by the wall in 1965, which was again redeveloped in the late 1970's. Behind the wall the East Germans created a second barrier, a no mans land. Anyone enteringthis area was in danger as the East German guards were permitted to open fire on people in this area without warning.

The purpose of the wall was simple. It was designed to stop the large scale migration of East Germans to the West. Between the building of the wall in 1961 and its fall in 1989 it is estimated that around 5000 people managed to escape into West Berlin: over 2 milion had done so before the construction of the wall.





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