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War and the transformation of British society c1903–28

Key Topic 1: The Liberals, votes for women and social reform

The activities of the women’s societies and the reaction of the authorities. Overview

Children’s welfare measures, old age pensions. Overview

Labour Exchanges 1909, the National Insurance Act 1911. Overview

The political position of women in 1903




Reactions of the authorities to militancy and protest

Forced feeding

The ‘Cat and Mouse Act’

Children’s Charter (1906)

The School Meals Act (1906)

Medical Inspection, 1907.

The reasons for and importance of Old Age Pensions Act (1908).

Labour Exchanges (1909)

National Insurance Act 1911.

Key Topic 2: The part played by the British on the Western Front

The BEF and 1914. Overview

Britain’s contribution to the Western Front 1915–17. Overview

The end of the war. Overview

The despatch of the BEF

The part played in the events of 1914

The failure of the Schlieffen Plan

The race for the sea

Setting up of the trench system.

The nature of trench warfare

Haig and the Battle of the Somme

The development and importance of new weapons



The creeping barrage.

Britain’s part in the events of 1918

Ludendorff’s offensives

The drive to victory.

Key Topic 3: The home front and social change

DORA, censorship and propaganda. Overview

Recruitment and rationing. Overview

The part played by women. Overview

The importance of censorship

Examples of propaganda

The various methods of recruitment: 1914–16

The reasons for, and impact of, conscription: 1916–18

Conscientious objectors.


The effects of submarine warfare on Britain

Measures brought in by the Government to alleviate the threat of U-Boats.

Key Topic 4: Economic and social change 1918–28

The changing role of women 1918–28. Overview

Industrial unrest 1918–27. Overview

The General Strike of 1926. Overview

Extension of the franchise

The changes in women’s work and social changes.

Trade union membership

Industrial militancy in the years 1918–20

The long-term and immediate problems of the coal industry

Black Friday (1921)

Red Friday (1925)

The Samuel Commission (March 1926).

Government preparations and measures to deal with the General Strike

The reasons why the TUC called off the General strike

Trades Disputes Act of 1927.

The Creeping Barrage

The Creeping Barrage is the name given to a method of firing artillery. At the beginning of Trench Warfare the basic tactic was to fire lots of artillery at enemy trenches for a sustained period of time and to stop firing just before the infantry attacked. However this method wasn't very successful as the German had built strong bunkers and were able to man the defences in the time between the bombardment ending and the infantry getting to the trenches. A solution to the problem of the time lag between the bombardment and the arriva of the infantry was to change the way that the artillery was fired. Instead of just aiming at the same target the creeping barrage moved forward at a prearranged pace. In theory this meant that a bmbardment could start in no mans land as infantry left the trenches and move forward, just in front of attacking troops. In this way the enemy would not be able to see the ongoing infantry because of the explosions and smoke and would have much less time to react to the infantry than under conventional bombardments.

The British first used a creeping barrage at the Battle of the Somme. It didn't work. The Infantry wasn't able to move as fast as the barrage and as communications with the artilery were limited it left the men exposed to German fire. The creeping barrage was developed as the war progressed and became more effective. It was used successfuly by the Canadians at Vimy Ridge, for example.


About.com - Creeping / Rolling Barrage.

FirstWorldWar.com - The Creeping Barrage




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